The Chouans by Honoré de Balzac

Les Chouans
The Chouans

Characters

  • Hulot – leader of demi-brigade
  • Pierre March-a-Terre – a leader of Chouans
  • Gerard – Hulot’s adjutant
  • Merle – Hulot’s captain
  • Clef-des-Coeurs – Hulot’s soldier who has his wits about him
  • Beau-Pied – Hulot’s soldier, a young sergeant with a sense of humor
  • Lebrum – Hulot’s sub-lieutenant
  • Larose – one of Hulot’s men who he asked to beat about the heights above the road before the Chouan attack
  • Gudin – patriot conscript who warns Hulot of Chouan strategy
  • Abbe Gudin – his uncle, with the Chouans’ Sacred Heart organization
  • Vannier – patriot conscript sent back to Fougeres for help
  • Pille-Miche, also called Cibot – one of March-a-Terre’s men, left to approach the coach
  • The Gars – noble leader of the Chouans, sent by princes and English, real name the Marquis of Montauran
  • du Gua St.-Cyre – young man at inn with mother (supposedly), from Paris, middle height, wore uniform of the Ecole Polytechnique (navy), noble, fair and curling hair, brilliant blue eyes, delicately cut nose – but he is really The Gars
  • Madame du Gua – his mother (supposedly), really the former lover of Charette, a leader of the Royalists
  • Coupiau, later given the Chouan name of Mene-a-Bien – driver of coach
  • d’Orgemont of Fougeres – third passenger in coach, a neutral banker
  • Count of Fontaine – leader of Royalists in La Vendee
  • Count of Chatillon – leader of Royalists in La Vendee
  • Count of Suzannet – leader of Royalists in La Vendee
  • Abbe Vernal – leader of Royalists in La Vendee
  • Chevalier de Valois – leader of Royalists in Orne
  • Marquis of Escrignon – leader of Royalists in Orne
  • The Troisvilles – leader of Royalists in Orne
  • Marie, de Verneuil – woman in coach, beautiful, suddenly with gold, government escort but must be Royalist, ci-devant, on some enterprise proposed by Corentin. Her real identify in question, but she has powerful papers saying the Republican Army is to do her bidding
  • Francine – her maid, 26, fair-haired, from around Alencon, blue eyes, commonly dressed, was Marche-a-Terre’s sweetheart seven years ago
  • Corentin, stranger following coach, 22, fancy dress
  • Baron du Guenie, l’Intime, friend of The Gars at the Chauteau who warns The Gars about Marie
  • Major Brigaut – at the Chauteau, from Marais, comrade of the late Merciers, called La Vendee
  • Longuy – Aid de camp of the Chouans, at Chauteau with The Gars
  • La Billardiere – son of a counselor in Parliament of Brittany, name is Flamet, at Chauteau with The Gars, Royalist
  • Comte de Fontaine – Vendean chief at Chauteau
  • Mustached man – at Chauteau with The Gars, wants to kill First Consel with a sword

Summary

FOUGERES RECRUITS TRANSPORTED TO MAYENNE

It is September 1799, and over one hundred peasants and townspeople from Fougeres in Brittany are being marched to Mayenne (department just to the east of Brittany) as new conscripts for the Republic, as requested by Napoleon. Napoleon’s wars with the Austrians in Italy, the Prussians in Germany, and Russia are going poorly. Napoleon’s in Egypt, and war is not going well there either. Balzac mentions that the area of Vendee, Brittany, and lower Normandy had been at peace as orchestrated by a General Hoche four years ago – but Royalist insurrection is again rising. It is not clear whether these men are to be pressed into foreign service or service to fight the Chouans. A new law had just been proclaimed that “these new levies are specially enrolled to oppose the Chouans and can never be drafted over the frontiers on any pretext whatsoever”. One of the reasons for calling up the levies was to actually remove possible insurgents from their homelands. Balzac notes that Brittany is “surrounded by enlightenment, but the beneficent warmth never penetrates it”. The land is furrowed with ravines, torrents, lakes, marshes, and hedges; there are no roads or canals, and the people remain backward and stubbornly independent. The people’s biggest influence is their local priest, who greatly encouraged past insurrections against the Republic as Chouans, who use the royalist and religious issues as excuse for plunder.

The marching men are quite a hodgepodge of people dressed in everything from goatskins to copper buttons! The majority wore goatskins, white crudely-spun cloth breeches, and dirty red wool hats. Some wore felt broad-brimmed hats, round jackets with square side pockets, waistcoats. Much talk about sabots, which are wooden shoes. A very few wore red or yellow waistcoats with copper buttons, blue linen breeches: “they looked like poppies and cornflowers in a field of wheat”. Most of this last group wore iron-bound shoes, silver studs on their collars, and even carried flasks of brandy. A few townspeople had still different costumes with round bonnets or flat or peaked caps, high boots or shoes with gaiters, etc. Even though they are Republic conscripts, very few of them are Republicans “for almost every one who composed it had taken part against the Government in the war of four years ago”. The faces of the conscripts show misery and dejection. This assemblage consisted of “men who were nearly all ill satisfied at being thus directed upon Mayenne, there to be submitted to a military discipline which must shortly clothe them all alike, and drill a uniformity into their march and ways of thinking which was at present entirely lacking among them”. They seem to scan the woods as they march and hang back from their escorts as much as possible.

The body of troops heading this march number 150 and report to the chief of the demi-brigade (new Republican term for colonel), Hulot. This detachment is stationed at Mayenne. They are called Blues because in the early days of the Republic they wore blue and red uniforms. Hulot is leery of his conscripts, suspecting they allowed themselves to be herded across the land only to procure arms for themselves. He moves out towards his Mayenne strength without waiting for late arrivals as a precaution. He keeps secret the doings of both the Royalists in La Vendee and the bad news of Napoleon’s foreign wars, as instructed by his superiors. He also has his troops secure the ammunition and rations so the conscripts can’t determine the length of the journey. He wants to make a beeline for Ernée in Mayenne because he knows the Chouans are at loose in the district and he fears his conscripts’ joining them.

THE CHOUANS ATTACK

As the troops and conscripts climb the Pelerine mountains, about half way to Ernée, the view back from Fougeres is spectacular. The valley of the Couesnon extends from the Pelerine back to Fougeres, which occupies one of the highest points on the horizon. Its castle is the center of communications and holds a view of the entire basin. Mountains rise on all sides, and in the basin is meadow land with quick-set hedges and trees and lots of shadows and lights. There are also rich woods, fields of buckwheat and rye. You can even catch an occasional distant view of water from streams. It is a beautiful sight, one which no doubt the conscripts are reluctant to leave for parts unknown.

Hulot sees the conscripts lagging behind and suddenly a stranger, later identified as Marche-a-Terre, appears on the scene. He’s a big man dressed crudely and appears not very bright. At first the officers think he’s a conscript, but think it is strange the way he simply appears on the scene. Hulot questions him, and he gives the answers of an imbecile. Hulot is about to dismiss him as a threat when he suddenly notices that he is covered with thorns and other debris as if he has been traveling a long distance through the woods. He realizes suddenly that Marche-a-Terre is a Chouan and that there are no doubt enemies lurking behind the hedges. The famous peace of General Hoche is now at an end, the Chouans are undoubtedly ready to attack. Peace seemed possible after the Ninth of Thermidor, when Robespierre was executed, but with the war uncertainties there is fear the Republic will be abandoned by Bonaparte and unable to make a stand among its foes. The various factions want positions and gold to better survive the anticipated future.

Hulot remains cool, he is the consummate officer totally loyal to the Republic. He speaks to his adjutant Gerald and captain Merle and tells them of the troubles in Paris with the Directory’s administration of the foreign wars. A prominent general, Bernadotte, has resigned and been replaced with Milet-Mureau, who is past his time. And with all the problems in the foreign wars, the Vendeans and Chouans are again rising. The Chouans have even intercepted Hulot’s own couriers twice. Napoleon’s head of internal security Fouche found out that Louis XVIII has sent a leader to the interior to help stir things up, perhaps with the help of the English. A ci-devant” (former noble) who calls himself “The Gars” is this leader.

The three officers turn to watch Marche-a-Terre, who shows not the slightest sign of discomfort under such close scrutiny. Guerilla warfare was new to the soldiers, so they are not sure what is to happen next. Hulot tells Gerard to move in on Marche-a-Terre and to kill him if he acts suspiciously. He tells Merle to order ten men and a sergeant on the summit just above where they are presently located. This area makes a plateau with a wide road and you can see the road to Ernée from there. He recommends he take Clef-des-Coeurs, who “has his wits about him”. Hulot then has his soldiers stand at ready for combat while he searches with his eyes for signs of the Chouans. The soldiers take Hulot’s cautions seriously because they know he is skilled and courageous. Hulot then orders Merle to dispatch sub-lieutenant Lebrun and twelve stout soldiers to the rear of the conscripts to support the few patriots there in case of revolt. He then picks out four resolute men and asks them to beat about on both sides of the heights above the road to see if they can flush out the Chouans. He knows he might be sending them to their death. Merle comes back from his dispatch of soldiers to the rear, and Hulot sets the rest of the troop in order of battle in the middle of the road. They start to regain the summit of the Pelerine. Suddenly Marche-a-Terre begins a whistle that sounds like a screech-owl. We are told here that the nickname ‘Chuin’ arose because in the dialect of this country ‘Chuin’ means screech-owl – a later corruption of the word turned it into Chouan.

Gerald is ready to kill Marche-a-Terre, but Hulot stops him because he wants to use him as a kind of barometer to the enemy’s movements. He posts two soldiers to guard him, and again Marche-a-Terre acts dumb. They wait. After a time the cry of a screech-owl is heard from far away. The conscripts are drawn together. The officers discuss the sad state of political affairs and say the army would step in before allowing the foreigners or the princes to take over. The two soldiers who were sent ahead to the left on the heights above the road return and report seeing nothing, but the soldiers sent to the right have not come back. While Hulot is talking to the two soldiers, Marche-a-Terre again cries out a sharp whistle, then gives each of his guards a blow with his whip handle. The Chouans in the woods emit savage yells and begin firing from the wood – killing seven or eight soldiers. Five or six soldiers took aim on Marche-a-Terre, but they did not hit him – he had climbed the slope “with the agility of a wild cat” and disappeared into the woods above. The wooden shoes he had been wearing rolled down into the ditch and it was easy to see the great iron-bound shoes which were always worn by the Chasseurs du Roi (Hunters of the King). The new conscripts made a dash for it into the woods “like a flock of birds scared by the approach of a passer-by”. The soldiers fire upon them but miss because every man set his back against a tree for the first shot and then fled while the rifles were being reloaded. The two soldiers sent to the right to scout now appear, but Marche-a-Terre appears from the woods and shoots them with one shot. He again disappears without injury.

Hulot orders his company forward, but the Chouans do not attack. Hulot thinks their purpose was to steal his conscripts and that there will be no more battle. He decides to march double-time to Ernée to escape them. A patriot conscript named Gudin advises Hulot that the Chouans have undoubtedly brought arms for the conscripts just escaped and that they will pick the soldiers off in the woods before they can get to Ernée. He shows Hulot evidence of the passage of a large body of men. Hulot makes Gudin corporal of his townsmen and authorizes Gudin to appoint a townsman to return to Fougeres for help from the National Guard and the Free Companies. Gudin sends Vannier on this task. Gudin remains beside Hulot as they prepare for the next siege. Hulot has ten men to his left, ten men to his right, and two wings of twenty-five men each under the command of Gerard and Merle. The Chouans number three hundred. A sudden discharge at close quarters caused a lot of deaths, but the Republican wings flanked the Chouans – death to many more Chouans. Passionate fighting by the Republican wings redressed the disparity in numbers, and the battle evened with many men killed on both sides.

ROYALIST LEADER THE GARS APPEARS

Hulot notices a man, not Marche-a-Terre, that seems to be their leader. Marche-a-Terre is by his side. He makes an effort to see his face and finds him to be about twenty-five, fair hair, sparkling eyes, delicately cut features tanned by the sun, of middle height, gracefully made. A glimpse of a broad red ribbon looked to be a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Louis ribbon. Hulot taunts him, but the Chouans restrain their commander and keep him safe. The Chouans fight even more valiantly after a Chouan voice reminds the troops that it was here that Lescure fell. Finally the National Guard from Fougeres arrives, and the Chouans fall away in an expert manner. A mortally wounded Chouan reveals that the name of their leader is The Gars, indeed the very ci-devant that Hulot has heard about earlier. The wounded Chouan dies, and it is revealed that he has a tattooed heart in a bluish color, a token that the wearer had been initiated into the Brotherhood of the Sacred Heart. The name “Marie Lambrequin” is tattooed underneath, assumed to be the Chouan’s name.

Hulot’s soldiers bury their dead and resume the march over the Pelerine and down the other side to Ernée. Hulot reflects this is the beginning of a new kind of warfare: never before had such a considerable body of troops been attacked. He also notes that “The Gars”, a new general sent over to France by the princes, must have his own name and title concealed after the custom of Royalist leaders. Hulot wonders why they attacked – they lost about one hundred men while Hulot lost about fifty. Although they got about 150 recruits, Hulot knows the conscripts could have just faded into the woods without such an attack by the Chouans. He thinks they are after something else. Hulot looks up and sees a portion of the Chouans on the summit of Pelerine even before the National Guard is quite out of earshot on their way back to Fougeres.

Back in the Chouan camp one of the soldiers, a member of the Hunters of the King, wonders the same thing. He accuses Marche-a-Terre of making them fight just to save his own skin. Marche-a-Terre glares back at his accuser and states that he, Marche-a-Terre, is in command and that if all had fought as he did they would have wiped out the Blues. He implies the attack was to keep the Blues from protecting the coach (which carries 20,000 pounds) that is due to come through at any time. Obviously there is hostility between these two, and eventually “The Gars” has to break it up. When told that they plan to attack the coach, “The Gars” is appalled and chastises his troops. He does not want to be any part of such robbery. This does not please the troops, who are to receive a portion of the proceeds.

Suddenly a young woman appears. We don’t know her name, but she obviously has some influence. She supports the coach robbery and makes light of The Gars‘ concerns, teasing him about his objections. She feels they are so in need of money that it is OK and that it is robbing those who have in effect robbed them. She herself is desperate because money promised by her mother has not arrived. “Have not the Blues robbed us, and taken the property of the Church?” “The Gars”, now referred to as the Marquis, tells her he must absent himself during this coach holdup, that he cannot sanction it in his presence. There is obviously some relationship between the Marquis and the woman, but she cannot prevail on him to stay for the coach event. The young woman reflects, and we learn that she is of noble blood and took part in the revolution before becoming an anti-revolutionist.

CHOANS ATTACK STAGE COACH FOR GOLD

Meanwhile the stage coach, a very old contraption, starts between Ernée and Fougeres with a driver, Coupiau, and three passengers. The youngest one, a man, claimed to be a patriot and carrying three hundred crowns. He was dressed in a goatskin cloak and breeches of good cloth and a good waistcoat, all signs of a well-to-do farmer. He carried two pistols and asked the others if they were Chouans. The second man, about forty, was dressed in black and seemed to be a man of the cloth. We later discover him to be the Abbe Gudin, uncle of the Gudin with Hulot. He assures the young man they are not Chouans but seems curiously sympathetic to their robberies. By the way the driver and young man act he deduces that it is driver, not the young man, who has money on board. The third person is a nonentity, and no one pays any attention to him at all. “he was one of those tiresome and inconvenient people who travel by coach as passively as a calf that is carried with its legs tied up to a neighboring market”. But he is secretly quite alert. When Coupiau hears the firing at La Pelerine, they decide to put up at the end on the road and hide the coach. The Republicans of Hulot ride past the inn hurrying to reach Ernée and do not see the coach. Young Gudin joins the Blues as they go by, much to the chagrin of the his uncle the Abbe. Coupiau brings his coach back on the road and resumes the trip to Fougeres.

Marche-a-Terre sees the coach, and the Chouans rush it. The unknown traveler cowers in the bottom. The farmer in the coach turns out to be Pille-Miche (also called Cibot), one of Marche-a-Terre’s men. The Abbe and Pille-Miche seem to be on the same side, the side of the Chouans. Marche-a-Terre takes a bag of gold, giving the lady and the priest a share. “The Gars” returns and gives the young woman a letter. It is from her mother, and the money they have just robbed from the coach was money she was sending to her. The priest gives her back his share. The young lady tells Marche-a-Terre to go towards Mortagne where the Blues continually transmit large sums of money to Alencon for the war. She expects him to make up the money there and return her mother’s money when they are successful. She cautions Marche-a-Terre not to tell “The Gars” of the mission. We still do not know who the young lady is, but it is obvious she is in a relationship with “The Gars”.

The coach goes on, but Pille-Miche and Marche-a-Terre stop it a little later to take a look at the mysterious third passenger. When they ask the passenger who he is, he says he is a poor linen-draper. They don’t buy that, especially since driver Coupiau is shaking his head out of sight of the passenger. The passenger then admits he is d’Orgemont of Fougeres, a banker. Marche-a-Terre observes he is neither a good Chouan nor genuine Blue – he bought the property of the Abbey of Juvigny. He demands three hundred crowns of six francs each. He protests but agrees to pay them at the farm at Gibarry where lives Galope-Chopine, the cousin of Pille-Miche. Marche-a-Terre is pleased with the driver Coupiau for his performance and gives him the new Chouan name of Mene-a-Bien. After the Chouans leave, d’Orgemont reveals that he has 10,000 francs hidden in his shoes. It is too late for Coupiau/Mene-a-Bien to alert the Chouans.

MARIE DE VERMEIUL TRAVELS TO  MAYENNE

Napoleon has been made dictator, and Hulot’s responsibilities appear to increase. But somehow he ends up with the job of escorting two mysterious women across Brittany to Mayenne. He is not pleased!

At the inn, The Three Moors at Alencon, these two women, Marie de Verneuil and her maid Francine, are escorted to an upstairs room to dine. The Three Moors is not a savory place. We don’t really understand who Marie and Francine are, but we find out she has papers which say that her word goes in everything to do with the Republic. There is a third person, Corentin, who seems to be following de Verneuil. There are some hints that Marie is there to undertake a project with Corentin. Marie acknowledges him but seems a bit hostile. Marche-a-Terre mysteriously appears briefly at the inn, scares the innkeeper to death, and sets up in the outbuildings to watch the inn. We hear the hooting of owls at inappropriate times throughout this segment, which are obviously Chouan calls. Supposedly Mlle de Verneuil was killed in the revolution. We know that she is former nobility, and some of the characters suspect she is sympathetic to the Royalists.

A woman who calls herself Madame du Gua arrives with her supposed son, M. du Gua St.-Cyre. Madame du Gua claims to be thirty-eight, and no way is she that old. And by the way, supposedly the du Guas were killed in a coach robbery the day before. The behavior between her and M. du Gua, a member of the navy, implies that they are not mother and son. There is some instant attraction between M. du Gua and Marie, and they seems to be trying to figure out who the other is while mostly ignoring each other. At some point there is speculation that M. du Gua is “The Gars”! When Hulot enters the dining room, he challenges M. du Gua, asks for his papers and starts to take him off for further questioning. There is enough paleness and tremors going on with Marie when discussion of hoot-owls and Chouans comes up to make one think that indeed somehow they are involved – and yet they have a Republican escort.

Marie and Francine started at Alencon, which is east of Mayenne, and are headed to Fougeres, farther east in Brittany.

Merle comes to assist Mlle de Vermeuil in Hulot’s place. He tells her that it put out Hulot to find “his general wearing a mutch”, which is a Socttish women’s close-fitting cap. But Merle notices she is quite firm and comfortable with command and thinks Hulot had better do her bidding if he wants to advance. Meanwhile, Madame du Gua sneaks out to talk with Marche-a-Terre. She orders him to kill Mlle de Vermeuil if he determines she is a traitor. “And if, after you have made all these inquiries, you find that is not her name,….you will shoot her down without mercy, as if she were a mad dog.” Francine has tiptoed up behind Madame du Gua and overhears her. When Madame du Gua leaves, she greets Marche-a-Terre, whose first name is Pierre. We learn that she is his former sweetheart, that they haven’t seen each other in seven years and that Marche-a-Terre still cares for her. Francine asks if Madame du Gua ordered the killing of her mistress Vermeuil and threatens to never see Pierre again if he carries out these orders. Francine tells Pierre that her mistress was brought up in Francine’s house and has taken charge of her, giving her enough money to buy her uncle Thomas’ big house and tuck some funds away in savings. When Pierre tells Francine the churchmen have told the Chouans to fight, Francine worries that the Blues will kill Pierre, and then plaintively says “And then what would become of me?” Astonishingly, two tears roll down Pierre’s checks. He assures Francine he loves her, but she insists the King comes before her. Marche-a-Terre leaves after this disquieting conversation and orders his group of thirty Chouans, who were sleeping in the hay, to the open country.

MARIE FALLS IN LOVE WITH THE GARS

Mlle de Vermeuil, Francine, Madame du Gua, and her son board the mail coach and depart. Balzac reminds us that Mlle de Vermeuil has a highly wrought temperament which had marked her out for the storms of passion. M. du Gua studies her and an undercurrent of flirtation is going on. They get out and walk together during an uphill journey. Madame du Gua is not pleased and trails behind them. Eventually Marie and M. du Gua talk of love, and Marie says she has never been in love and may never be. The conversation goes on, and M. du Gua suddenly tells Marie he is not in the service of the Republic and could go with her wherever she is going. This seems to upset Marie. She then says she knows he is “The Gars”, the Royalist Chief. Marie assures him that he is abhorrent to her because she is a Republican, but it is obvious she is conflicted in her feelings toward him. She tells him she and Francine will go back to Alencon and will order Merle and the troops to give him safe passage and warns him his life is in danger. She demands that he acknowledge that he is indeed the Marquis of Montauran. To stop her leaving du Gua says he is the Vicomte de Bauvan, an emigrant under sentence of death, a friend of Montauran. He says he came back to be near his brother and out of love of France. He’s on his way to Brittany to see if any of his property remains. Marie believes him, but he is lying of course. He is really “The Gars”, the Marquis of Montauran. Lots of love talk: “I could wish to share in the larger life of a man, to be wedded to lofty ambitions and great thoughts.” They go back to the coach deep in thoughts about each other.

There is an attack on the road, but it turns out it has been made by the Chouans to warn “du Gua” aka “The Gars” that Marie is not to be trusted. “Mistrust the girl whom you met at the sign of the ‘Three Moors!'” said the Chevalier de Valois, a member of the Royalist Committee from Alencon. Napoleon’s security chief Fouche has supposedly sent a female operative to work her way into “The Gars'” camp, and it is suspected it is Marie. We suspect it too because of the conversations between Francine, Marie, and Corentin (who shows up again menacingly on this trip). Marie is obviously truly in love with “The Gars” and is in conflict. “The Gars” himself is shaken by the warning. Marie promises him safe passage even after he more or less admits who he is.

STAGE COACH PASSENGERS REST AT HOME OF THE GARS

The coach and escort leave to road and go to the country home of “The Gars” for rest. We are introduced to other Royalists such as Baron du Guenie, Major Brigaut, Longuy, La Billardiere, the Comte de Fontaine, and a mustached man who wants to kill the First Counsel and will be famous.

“Madame du Gua” keeps trying to get Marie killed – she knows she is treacherous and she is jealous of the love between her and “The Gars”. But “The Gars” makes it quite clear that no Blues or Marie will be killed while at the Chateau. Marche-a-Terre and eighty-seven Chouans are in the woods around the Chateau and appear to be planning to attack the sixty-five Blues in spite of “The Gars'” orders to keep them safe. Francine appeals to Marche-a-Terre to not harm Marie. He tells her it is not his decision but he will do what he can.

Hulot’s lieutenants Merle and Gerard are concerned about security at the Chateau de Vivetiere. Gerard orders Beau-Pied and Clef-des-Cours to reconnoiter. They miss discovering the hidden Chouans as Clef-des-Cours pauses for a drink of cider. Gerard meanwhile advises Mlle Marie de Verneuil to leave immediately. Blinded by love for Marquis Montauran (“The Gars”), she feels perfectly safe and refuses to leave. She reflects on how she has shifted into the Royalist camp of her beloved.

CHOUANS ATTACK AND MARIE EXPOSED AS REPUBLICAN

The Abbe Gudin arrives and Montauran signals him to keep silent. Merle and Gerard become increasingly nervous in the obvious Royalist camp. Were they in a trap? Was Mlle de Verneuil a dup or an accomplice? The Abbe whispers a few words which eventually reach “The Gars”: Marie is a traitor. “The Gars” turns to the Abbe to ask if this is true. When assured that it is, “The Gars” says “I would give my life to have my revenge at this moment.” All eyes turn with scorn to Marie. Merle and Gerard jump up and demand their swords just as the Chouans attack the Republicans outside. Montauran rushes out. Most Republicans are killed, and Pille-Miche kills Gerard. Merle is spared as a future prisoner to be exchanged. In the dining room Mme du Gua openly accuses Marie of planning to give up Montauran to the Republic. Marie says she could have given him up a score of times but instead saved his life. Marie and Mme du Gua fight, and Marie’s clothes are torn and her breast lacerated. The letter giving her carte blanche cooperation of the Republicans in the localities frequented by “The Gars” is read. Montauran returns and stares with apathy as Mme du Gua turns Marie over to Pille-Miche to “do whatever you will with her.” Marie becomes indignant and tries to stab Montauran with a sword, and she is dragged from the room by Montauran and Pille-Miche. Outside, Francine shrieks for Pierre Marche-a-Terre to help Marie.

For some reason Montauran releases Merle, who quickly departs hoping to rescue Marie (whom he hopes to make his wife). Pille-Miche shoots Merle in spite of knowing that Montauran has spared him, then sees Merle has Montauran’s glove (which means safe passage), and flees in fear. Montauran hears the shot and thinks it was for Marie. Pierre manages to buy Marie from Pille-Miche and tells her to flee with “The Gars'” glove. He urges Francine to return to him within the week. Beau-Pied rises from the pile of Republican soldiers alive and accompanies Marie and Francine in her coach to toward Fougeres. Mme du Gua is enraged when she sees the coach flee.

Montauran talks over the war situation with M de Fontaine. They think the Chouans are no match militarily for the disciplined Republicans but hope with their help they can fight their way to Paris. “The Gars” says that Autichamp, Suzannet, and the Abbe Bernier are to move towards Paris as he does and that they should be within thirty leagues of Paris in three weeks. M. de Fontaine says he’s heard that the Republic is sending 60,000 men and General Brune to fight the Chouans. However the Marquis doubts this as that will leave no one for the Italian campaign of Napoleon. Besides, he’s heard that Brune has been directed against the English at Holland and General Hedouville will take his place.

MARIE FLEES TO FOUGERES

Marie and the coach make it safely to Fougeres, where she is forced to show her letter for safe entry. Corentine calls upon her and commented that she almost got “The Gars”. She asks him not to speak of the matter. Corentine has secured the Papegaust’s Tower, a fine house, for Marie’s headquarters. Marie “sat alone, absorbed in plans for getting the Marquis into her hands alive. For the first time she had known a life in accordance with her inmost wishes; but of that life nothing remained to her now but the longing for revenge – a revenge that should be absolute and unending. This was her sole thought, her one passionate desire.” Hulot visits Marie, who tells him she will avenge the loss of his soldiers. She urges Hulot to aid in letting Montauran think she still loves him. Hulot asks Marie why she stopped him from taking Montauran at the inn, and she says she was not sure at that time that he was “The Gars”. Hulot doubts Marie will give up Montauran because she is still in love with him, but Corentin says that is why she will – and if she doesn’t, well, then, he will be around to step in.

The Chouans converge at Fougeres. Marie spots the Chouans approaching with the Marquis and Madame du Gua, who shoots at, but misses, Marie. Marie grabs a dagger and takes off out of the town, over high cliffs, etc. in pursuit of the Marquis. It becomes dark and she is afraid but continues. She eventually comes upon “The Gars” in a house, where he is sitting dejectedly. She appears at the window and flees when he sees her. She runs, is heavily pursued and hides in a cellar. She hears footsteps coming down the cellar stairs and scrambles up to the top of a low wall which separates the cellar from the staircase. A stranger in goatskins passes under her without seeing her. As the stranger flashes a light, Marie see that the cellar is an unused kitchen and that there is a short, stout person bound from head to foot energetically emitting agonized entreaties. Horrors, the stranger is Pille-Miche, the very man she had been given to by “The Gars”! Pille-Miche makes a fire and implies he will roast his victim, who is the owner of the house, M. d’Orgemont, the banker from the coach. Pille-Miche raps his carbine against various parts of the room in search of the gold he knows M. d’Orgemont must have hidden. Marche-a-Terre and two other Chouans arrive and announce they have seen the ghost of their dead comrade Marie Lambrequin. Marche-a-Terre gives the new soldier Galope-Chopine (his cousin) a lecture on honest soldiering and tells him he can recognize citizens on their side because they will be given “The Gars”‘ glove – now with a green ribbon fastened to it as extra assurance they are friends after the incident at “The Gars”‘ chateau.

The Chouans turn their attention to M. d’Orgemont and seem to begin to roast him over the fire in earnest in order to find out where his gold is hidden. The scene is so startlingly gruesome that Marie involuntarily cries out dramatically, “Unbind him, you savages!” The Chouans think Marie a ghost and fee in terror. Marie swiftly unbinds M. d’Orgemont with her dagger, and they hide in a secret compartment before the Chouans return with an outraged Madame du Gua. Marie and M. d’Orgemont climb some stairs to a hidden room whose walls are stacked with gold. Bizarrely the body of M. d’Orgemont’s brother is there, unburied because when alive he took the republican oath and thus is not allowed to be buried in consecrated ground. We later find he was actively persecuted by the Abbe Gudin and others.

M. d’Orgemont is beside himself at Marie’s viewing his riches and even thinks of marrying her to preserve his secret. He thinks of nothing but money and is known as the miser. Marie assures him money means nothing to her. She pushes aside a picture and suddenly sees “The Gars” talking with Abbe Gudin. “The Gars” is planning a ball at St. James in order to better assess the political position of the locals; the Abbe is opposed. “The Gars” tells the Abbe that M. Hyde de Neuville and M. de d’Andione have been having a conference with the First Consul over the question of restoring Louis XVIII and he wants to impact these deliberations.

Marie and M. d’Orgemont wait for the Chouans to leave. Marie again swears revenge on “The Gars”, perhaps at the upcoming ball. Then the voice of Galope-Chopine calls the coast clear – he is apparently in the employment of M. d’Orgemont, a double agent of sorts. M. d’Orgemont lends Marie ten crowns and tells her if necessary she can find asylum by seeking it from the wife of Galope-Chopine (also known at Big Cibot – his cousin Marche-a-Terre is known as Cibot). M. d’Orgemont leaves Marie with instructions to pay him back the ten crowns and with a renewal of the offer of marriage. He even offers to lend her money at a good rate of five per cent. As she leaves, he decides to redesign his secret chamber a bit, just in case, though he thinks “she looks to me like a good sort of girl.”

THE BATTLE AT FOUGERES

Marie wanders to the brink of the crags of St. Sulpice and stops for the night. She can hear the sounds of armed men and horses. At daylight she sees the shocking scene of three thousand Chouans attacking the castle at Fougeres. It looks grim for the town except for the fact that Hulot is there and fighting back. The Chouans did not realize he had clandestinely returned to Fougeres with an artillery. Hulot has concealed a battery on a height and fires it to clear the road momentarily of Chouans – after which a company makes a sortie from the St. Sulpice gate and opens fire on the Chouans. They are mowed down, but other Chouans have climbed the rocks and reached the promenade – Fougeres is clearly under siege from all sides. Hulot’s troops persevere, mowing down the enemy wherever they appear. In a half hour the Blues, with the loss of less than a hundred men, are in command. The Chouans fade back into the guerilla warfare of the hills. “The Gars”‘ bold stroke had come to nothing. He would not have made the attack if he had known Hulot had fortified the town after the massacre at the Vivetiere chateau of “The Gars”.

Marie is transfixed by the battle but eventually flees to the Galope-Chopine safe house. It is a shockingly crude dwelling – the translator’s note tells us the Chouan nickname of Galope-Chopine means “toss-pot”, a name well earned. Madame Barbette hides Marie behind some curtains at the head of the bed, a place she calls “the priest’s hole”. No sooner has she been hidden than a new arrival appears and asks to be hidden – the dinner guest at “The Gars”‘ chateau – the very person who exposed Marie and brought about the slaughter of the Blues there. Barbette leaves the house in case the Blues come so they won’t find her in collaboration. The dinner guest, revealed as the Count de Bauvan, hides under the bed, sees Marie’s feet and her disheveled hair, and laughs at her. The Blues show up, and Marie orders Beau-Pied to take charge of the Count and deliver him alive at Fougeres. She has a plan.

Marie makes a dramatic return to Fougeres in her Chouan garb, disheveled hair, gun in hand, dirty. She greets Francine, asks for a bath and her prettiest clothes. After cleaning up she sends for the Count and finds that Hulot has ordered him shot. She appeals to Hulot to release the Count to her and invites both Hulot and the Count to dinner. Marie uses all her feminine wiles to play up to the count, to court him. He tells her what he whispered at “The Gars”‘ chateau: that Marie had been the mistress of the Marquis of Lenoncourt. Marie laughs, whispers in the Count’s ear so Hulot cannot hear. The Count is surprised, falls on one knee, and offers apologies and all services to Marie. The Count reveals the details of the ball at St. James, asks for his protection and secrecy as she attends the ball, and recognition that she indeed is the daughter of the duc de Verneiul. Count de Bauvan agrees, and Marie escorts him out of town. She sees Hulot and Corentin on her return and tells them she will go to the ball. She turns down Corentin’s offer as an escort with contempt, but Corentin “meant so to control her by means of her passions that one day she should be his.” Francine prepares Marie for her journey to the ball. She will dress in a Greek costume, asks Francine to borrow some old crowns from Hulot (she has only newly minted coins), and instructs Francine to sew a bit of green ribbon on “The Gars”‘ glove. She practices the call of the screen owl.

Marie and Francine embark at midnight for St. James. At Galope-Chopine’s cottage she makes the call of the owl to call him out, shows him “The Gars”‘ glove (with the newly added green ribbon), and asks for donkeys and his escort. He complies. It is rough going through the rugged countryside with hedges of broom, a country constructed for advantages to the natives for guerrilla warfare. “Mlle de Verneuil now understood how pressing was the necessity that the Republic should stamp out rebellion rather by means of police and diplomacy than by futile efforts on the part of the military.” As they travel, Galope-Chopine redirects them to a cove in the forest where Abbe Gudin is giving an inspirational sermon and war pep talk to the Chouans. He is riveting and even has Francine in a religious state. Marie stays in the shadows while the Abbe claims more miracles and blesses the guns of the Chouans. Galope-Chopine’s “cheeks and forehead were puckered with unconcealed joy as he looked at his gun; religious conviction had infused an element of fanaticism into his elation so that, for a moment, the worse propensities of civilization seemed to be manifested in his barbarous features.”

Marie, Francine, and Galope-Chopine make their way to St. James, the site of the upcoming ball. Sights of newly recruited peasants are everywhere. They are still dressed crudely in their native dress and have few weapons. Marie’s party makes their way to an inn, where, with difficulty, she secures a tiny room of no great merit. Marie gives Galope-Chopine four crowns and dismisses him. Marie and Francine prepare Marie for the ball in her Indian muslin costume. She is beautiful and stands out from all the other women at the ball.

THE GARS’ BALL

Before the ball begins, “The Gars” is having a bit of a problem with his leaders, who want written promises of titles and wealth in exchange for fighting for the King. The Chevalier Rifoel du Vissard wants money and a greater rank, the Abbe Gudin wants the Archbishopric of Rennes, the smuggler Cottereau wants the title of Monsieur and to be promoted to Colonel, the Count de Bauvan demands to be the Grand Master of the Rivers and Forests of France, another wants the Governorship of Brittany, another a barony, etc. Only M. du Guenie and Major Brigaut ask for nothing. Finally “The Gars”, disappointed in his men, shows them the paper from the King which empowers him to govern in his name Brittany, Normandy, Maine, and Anjou and to acknowledge the services of the officers. “All eyes were fixed on the King’s signature, when the young chief, who was standing by the hearth, flung the letter into the fire, ‘where it was burned to ashes in a moment.” “I will no longer command any but those who see in the King, a King; and not a prey for them to devour. Gentlemen, you are at liberty to leave me –‘ The Gars exclaims. A cry of ‘long live the King’ went up, and the immediate crisis is averted.”

The Count de Bauvan greets Marie at the ball, escorts her around, and spreads the word that he was mistaken and she is truly the daughter of the duc de Verneuil. “The Gars” is transfixed but avoids her most of the evening. Mme du Gua is observant that “The Gars” is watching Marie and tells him she would gladly put Marie in the Marquis’ hands and see him happy with her. He asked why then did Mme du Gua try to kill Marie? “Because I wished her either dead or in your arms. Yes! I could have given my love to the Marquis of Montauran on the day when I thought that I discerned a hero in him. Today I have for him only a compassionate friendship! he is held aloof from glory by the roving heart of an opera girl.”

MARIE AND THE GARS RECONCILE

The Marquis tries to talk with Marie, but she starts to walk away. He dramatically grabs a firebrand from the hearth and asks her to grant him an audience as long as he can hold it in his hand. He wants to apologize for doubting that she was the daughter of the duc. One look and it is obvious that they still love each other. Burnt hand later, they are reconciled, and she tears strips from her handkerchief and dresses his wound. The Marquis, at Marie’s request, rides back with Marie and Francine to the outskirts of Fougeres, where Marie tells her story. She is the illegitimate daughter of the duc de Verneiul, who acknowledged her before his death. She was taken under the wing of the seventy year old Marechal Duc de Lenoncourt, one of her father’s friends, after his death. He became her guardian and helped her when her half-brother protested her father’s will which was in partial favor of Marie. But it seems that Paris thought she was Lenoncourt’s mistress even though their relationship was more like father and daughter, and her reputation was ruined. She asked that Lenoncourt marry her to save her reputation, but at the last minute he bolted. “One day … I found myself Danton’s wife.” She became suicidal but was rescued, we presume by Corentin, who wanted her for himself and perhaps persuaded her to undertake the mission of making The Gars fall in love with her so she could betray him for 300,000 francs. Of course, Marie instead falls in love with “The Gars”, and all bets are off. Marie dramatically says “I am only a dishonored creature and unworthy of you…I should despise you if you were weak enough to marry me.” She promises not to betray him and declares she will return to Paris.

Marie returns to Fougeres, where she pretends to Corentin that she is setting a trap for “The Gars” and lies to him about where she is to meet him. (“The Gars” has sent her a note to meet him at Galope-Chopine’s house.) Corentin knows she is in love with “The Gars” and is watching her every move, but he is initially persuaded that Marie is telling the truth about a meeting place and gives Hulot the information. But he discovers her treachery and lights out after her with some of Hulot’s men. Corentin reflects that he has been systematically removing supportive people from Marie and thinks when she loses “The Gars” she will turn to Corentin as her savior.

“The Gars” and Marie meet at Galope-Chopine’s house, embrace, and Marie tells him he must not seek for her again, that it puts him in great danger. Lots of passionate talk and angst. “To be your wife, and incur the risk of one day being burdensome to you? Rather than face that fear, I choose a transient love, but a love that is true while it lasts, though it should lead to death and misery in the end.” Somewhere in all this talk “The Gars” says “if on the morning of the day after tomorrow you see smoke rising from the crags of St. Sulpice, I shall be with you in the evening. I will be your lover, your husband, whatever you would have me be. I shall have dared all things.” Marie appeared to about to relinquish herself to “The Gars” when she is warned that the Blues are close. “He would have taken me, and perhaps have laughed at me afterwards,” she said to herself. “Ah! If I could bring myself to believe that, I would kill him, Ah! not just yet!” So we do not know for sure if she is on “The Gars”‘ side or not – she’s for him if she finds his love to be true, ready to kill him otherwise – or is she playing a game at which even she is not sure of the rules?

“THE GARS” ESCAPES FROM THE CHOUANS

The Blues surround the house, and by Marie’s appearing first, “The Gars” barely manages to escape, eagerly pursued by the young Gudin, who gets caught in the fire of the Chouans. Hulot rescues him, reflecting that if he loses Gudin he will never make another friend. In the aftermath of the fire between the Blues and the Choauns, it is discovered that the Abbe Gudin, young Gudin’s uncle, has been killed. The soldiers find a bag of gold on him and divide it up. Young Gudin is sorrowful and makes no move to claim the money even though he is his next of kin.

Galope-Chopine’s wife Barbette waits anxiously for Galope-Chopine to return from the fighting and even sends her son out to look over the dead to make sure he is not among them. Finally Galope-Chopine returns and tells Barbette that there is in inquiry underway to find out who committed treason by telling the Blues that “The Gars” was in Galope-Chopine’s house. Barbette turns pale and says it was her but she is innocent. The little band of Blues were dressed as Chouans, and she told them “The Gars” was at her house because she believed them Chouans. Both Galope-Chopine and Barbette are worried because they know the Chouans won’t accept this explanation. Galope-Chopine tells Barbette of the next duty: “To-morrow morning you must make a heap of faggots on the crags of St. Sulpice to the right of St. Leonard, and set fire to them. That is a signal agreed upon between “The Gars” and the old rectorr of Saint Georges, who will come and say a mass for him.” Galope-Chopine tells her “The Gars” is going to go to Fougeres to see Marie, to marry her and take her away with him. Galope-Chopine is to hire horses and have them ready along the Saint Malo Road.

The next morning Galope-Chopine arranges for the horses and sends Barbette off to the crags for her duties. But then Marche-a-Terre and Pille-Miche show up and ask for Galope-Chopine’s ax. They view him as a traitor and don’t believe his story about how the Blues found out about “The Gars”‘ location. Galope-Chopine is laid on the table, and his head it cut off – to be hung by a nail in the doorway. Marche-a-Terre and Pille-Miche calmly wash up and leave the house.

Barbette and her son return, find the head, and are horrified. Then and there Barbette turns Blue and makes her son vow to fight the Chouans with the Blues. She has a plot afoot to betray “The Gars” to get her revenge. She thrust her son’s foot in the bloody shoe left at the murder scene and tells him, “Never set a shoe on your foot without remembering how this one was full of blood that the Chuins spilt, and kill the Chuins!” She grabs her son and a hidden bag of gold and tears out of the house towards Fougeres, stopping by St. Sulpice to stoke her fire of faggots.

Meanwhile Marie waits for the sign of the smoke at St. Sulpice. She has truly given herself over to love for “The Gars”. “Slowly the fierceness and uncontrolled outbursts of her passions had been subdued by the influence of the even warmth that true love brings into a life.” She tells Francine she will be the Marquise de Montauran by nightfall and thinks with great pleasure of a life as the Marquise with the responsibilities and cares of marriage and motherhood. She fusses over the room, preparing for the arrival of “The Gars”, but she as yet cannot see the smoke at St. Sulpice because of the fog.

Barbette comes to Fougeres and tells Hulot about “The Gars”‘ plans, pointing to the smoke at St. Sulpice as proof. Hulot questions her sharply and asks her why she betrays the Chouans. She points to her son’s blood-stained foot and tells Hulot that the Chouans butchered her husband as a calf. She gives Hulot her money of two hundred crowns and asks him to take her son and train him as a Blue. The money is twelve years of Galope-Chopine’s savings. She figures the Chouans will find her and kill her. Corentin hears all of this and points out that “The Gars” will be hard to take and that Hulot has a letter ordering him to obey Marie. Hulot is aggravated at Corentin’s talk.

Corentin goes to Marie and tells her he knows that “The Gars” is coming as indicated by the smoke and knows that Marie has no intention of betraying him. Marie flings herself at Corentin’s feet and asks what it will take to save Mountauran. She offers him 300,000 francs, and they appear to make a deal.

MARIE IS FOOLED INTO THINKNG “THE GARS” HAS BETRAYED HER

The weather worsens and visibility is low. It is hard to watch Marie’s house. Corentin decides to use Barbette’s son to identify “The Gars” when he comes to town. Marie and Francine wait anxiously. They hear shooting, and a little later a Blue gives Marie a note from Hulot. It says that his troops intercepted a messenger of “The Gars”, and he sends the message to Marie. We know that it is a fake note from “The Gars” in which he gloats over his conquest of Marie and calls Mme du Gua his angel and makes plans to return to England with Mme du Gua. Marie falls for the note and vows to kill “The Gars”. Francine tries to give her some wise advice: “…be the victim of your lover, as so many another has been, but do not be his mistress or his executioner. In the depths of your heart you can keep his image, and it need not make you cruel to yourself. If there were no joy in love when hope was gone, what would become of us, poor women that we are. The God of whom you never think, Marie, will reward us for having submitted to our lot on earth – to our vocation of loving and suffering.”

Marie’s not buying it and declares that Corentin is a noble creature compared with “The Gars”. She goes to find Hulot, and Corentin goes after her. Four men sneak into Marie’s house undetected while all of this is happening. Hulot assigns Gudin and ten men to watch Marie’s house. He hopes Gudin will killThe Gars” so Hulot will not have to bother with a trial later. Corentin sends Barbette’s son into Marie’s house with her. The soldiers wait in the night. Pille-Miche and Marche-a-Terre wait outside the city – they with their men are to somehow to rescue “The Gars” from Marie’s house. Corentin hears them but is not sure what he heard; then he is distracted by Mme du Gua entering the city. Corentin pretends he doesn’t recognize her and follows her. Mme du Gua meets with the Chouans and instructs them to find a ladder and position it at a side of the house’s tower that is not surrounded. There are horses waiting. But Mme du Gua tells the Chouans to stab Marie if she tries to follow him! Corentin goes off to warn Hulot and points out their position. Hulot orders fifty men to the base of the cliff below the drop-off point. Corentin tries to get Hulot to enter the house, but Hulot prefers to wait for attack. Corentin then pulls rank, drawing a letter of authority from the Minister of War. He is the real authority. While they are arguing about this, Galope-Chopine’s son comes up and announces that “The Gars” is going along the Rue St. Leonard.

MARIE AND “THE GARS” MARRY AND DIE

Meanwhile Marie and “The Gars” meet, lots of accusations, but eventually they figure out the Corentin supplied the letter. All is well, and they are to be married right then. The Priest and two witnesses have been brought with “The Gars”. Dinner was even served after the marriage ceremony. They spend the night, but Marie feels sure tomorrow they will all die. In the morning Marie shows “The Gars” the soldiers and confesses she is responsible for them. Just when all seems lost they hear the stifled cry of a screech-owl. Montauran changes into a Chouan’s costume and slips out the window with Pierre. Just before he descends Marie, now dressed in his old costume, gives him a last embrace. The Blues fire, Gudin and two men are wounded. They capture an escapee at St. Leonard’s Gate, thinking it “The Gars”, but find it is Marie in “The Gars”‘ clothing. She has tried to save “The Gars” by acting as a decoy. Corentin then comes with four men carrying “The Gars”, whose legs and arms were broken by the gunshots. He is laid beside Marie. He grabs her hand, and she murmurs dying “A day without a morrow!…God has heard me indeed!” They are dying. “The Gars” asks Hulot to write his brother of his death with his last wishes that he not bear arms against France, but never forsake the service of the King. Hulot promises this service, and “The Gars”, with a movement of his head, thanks him. Hulot then turns to Corentine and tells him to never enter his sight again or he will kill him. Corentin mutters as he leaves, “There is another of your honest folk who will never make their fortunes.”

Marche-a-Terre lived to be an old man and was known to be a very honest fellow. Pille-Miche died on the scaffold.

Read it here

See also this summary

Summary by Pamela, October – November 2006

One comment on “The Chouans by Honoré de Balzac

  1. scamperpb says:

    Thoughts on “The Chouans”….

    As I am adding Saintsbury’s commentary to the blog site, I decided to review each work by rereading our yahoo group’s summaries, Saintsbury, and any other readily available information just for the personal satisfaction of getting a better perspective overall of “The Human Comedy”. I’ll be taking them in the order they were read by our Balzac yahoo group. The first work, how well I remember because I was the summarizer, is “The Chouans”.

    Nearing the completion of reading all of Balzac, it is still my personal opinion that “The Chouans” is the most difficult of all Balzac works to read and understand. It has a cast of thousands with an intricate and overly involved plot. It was Balzac’s first work published under his own name, and Saintsbury agrees that it is flawed though it did bring Balzac name recognition. Saintsbury says he did not develop the art of making conversation tell a story, and that the action is obscure. I couldn’t agree more.

    And yet “The Chouans” is a rip-roaring story of history, intrigue, love, and treachery with a large dose of French countryside thrown in for good measure. To review the work, I reread Saintsbury, my very long summary above, Lisa’s shorter summary (located as ‘see also’ in the index), and the Wikipedia article on “The Chouans”. As a final sweep of Chouanism, I did some googling and found http://swiftlytiltingplanet.wordpress.com/2011/01/10/the-chouans-by-balzac/, which the our own Dagny and Lisa have already discovered and commented. It was great fun reading another review, the likes of which when we read this work just didn’t exist, LOL. Another site at http://www.oldandsold.com/articles22/honore-de-balzac-1.shtml also has quite an interesting summary of the story.

    With all these aids, I still had trouble following the story line and read even my own summary more than once to comprehend the action. All the weeks of my summaries combined into one document is very, very long, so long that I went to the above post on “The Chouans” and put a few (probably inadequate) subheadings as an aid to following the action. While my summary is faithful to the story line, it is still hard to follow and some would say too detailed. Lisa’s summary did a very good job of outlining the love story and pointing out that indeed that was the most important action of the story. The Wikipedia article didn’t even really try to provide the action but did point out a few points of theme and some background information. The summary at oldandsold.com did a credible job of keeping the drama while excising some of the less important details of the story line.

    I will always remember “The Chouans” as my first (and very difficult) summary experience, and as a flawed but exciting story of revolutionary France. In reflection, In this review I am beginning to understand that for difficult works writing excellent summaries requires a mastery of the work, something that cannot always be achieved with one or two readings. But we do what we can!

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